INSURANCE ACT, 1994

PART III
CONDUCT OF INSURANCE BUSINESS - GENERAL RESTRICTION ON INSURERS

5.(1) Subject to this Act, no person shall carry on any class of insurance business in or outside Seychelles unless the person -

(a) in the case of non-domestic insurance business, is registered by the Authority under this Act;

(b) in the case of domestic insurance business, is registered by the Licences Authority under this Act and holds a licence granted under this Act, 1986

to carry on insurance business as an insurer in that class.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1) an insurer lawfully carrying on insurance business in Seychelles at the commencement of this Act may continue doing so for a period of 12 months from the date of commencement of the Act and not later that 90 days before the expiration of that period any such insurer wishing to continue in carrying on such business shall apply for registration as an insurer under section 9.

(3) A person who continues to carry on business under subsection (2) shall for such period as he carries on such business be deemed, for the purposes of the Act, to be a registered insurer.

6. Any person who holds himself out to be a registered insurer in respect of life business or general business or both when the person is not registered insurer under this Act in respect of that business is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R90,000 and to imprisonment for a term of 3 years, and if the offence is continued after conviction is liable to a further fine of R6000 for each day of the offence is so continued.

7.(1) No person other than a registered insurer shall, without the written "insurance" consent of the Authority, use the word "insurance" or any of its derivatives language, or any other word indicating that that person carries on insurance business under this Act in the name, description or title under which it carries on business in or outside Seychelles or make any representation to such effect in any bill head, letter paper, notice, advertisement or in any other manner.

(2) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R15,000 and to imprisonment for a term of one year, and if the offence is continued after conviction is liable to a further fine of R3,000 for each day during which the offence is so continued.

8.(1) Whenever the Authority has reason to believe that a person is carrying on insurance business without having been registered under this Act, it may suspected of call for or inspect the books, accounts and records of that person in order to carrying on ascertain whether or not that person has contravened or is contravening any insurance provisions of this Act.

(2) Any person who refuses to submit such books, accounts and records to allow the inspection thereof is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R15,000 and to imprisonment for a term of 12 months, and if the offence is continued after conviction to a further fine of R3,000 for each day during which the offence is so continued.

9.(1) A person who desires to carry on insurance business in Seychelles as by Authority insurer shall apply in writing to the Authority for registration under this section and shall furnish such information as the Authority may require.

(2) Upon receiving an application under subsection (1), the Authority shall consider the application and may, subject to subsection (5) and section 10, register the applicant with or without conditions or refuse to register the applicant.

(3) The authority may register an applicant under subsection (1) as an insurer carrying on-

(a) domestic insurance business; or

(b) non-domestic insurance business

(4) The Authority shall cause notice of any registration under subsection (2) of an insurer carrying on domestic insurance business to be published in the Gazette.

(5) The Authority may, by notice published in the Gazette, specify the maximum number of persons who may be registered as an insurer under this Act.

10.(1) The Authority shall not register an applicant under section 9 unless the applicant

(a) Is a company limited by shares or an unlimited company incorporated under the Companies Act or is an overseas company registered under section 310 of that Act or is a body corporate constituted by an Act which enables the body corporate to carry on insurances business; and

(b) In the case of an applicant who desires to carry on domestic insurance business, other than captive insurance business or reinsurance business -

(i) Has a paid up capital of two million rupees in the case of a company or authorised capital of two million rupees in the case of a body corporate or such other sum as may be prescribed;

(ii) Has made arrangements for reinsurance which, in the opinion of the Authority, are suitable and adequate;

(iii) Has the value of its assets exceeding the amount of its liabilities by, not less than such amount as may be prescribed;

(iv) Has invested 30% of the required paid up capital, in the case of a company, or of the authorised capital, in the case of a body corporate, or such other higher percentage as may be prescribed, in government securities or bonds.

(2) For the purpose of subsection (1)(b)(iv) regulations may prescribe different amounts for different classes of insurance business or for different types of insurers.

11.(1) The Authority may at any time add to, vary or revoke any existing Registration conditions of registration imposed on an insurer or impose any new conditions thereto.

(2) Any insurer who fails to comply with any of the conditions of registration imposed by the Authority is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R60,000 and if the offence is continued after conviction is liable to a further fine of R3,000 for each day during which the offence is so continued.

12.(1) Every registered insurer shall pay to the Authority such annual fees as may be prescribed.

(2) The Minister may prescribe different annual fees for different classes of insurance business or for different types of registered insurers.

13.(1) The Authority may, by order, at the request of a registered insurer or of registration on any of the grounds set out in subsection (2), cancel the registration of an insurer either wholly or in respect of a class of business, as the case may be.

(2) The grounds referred to in subsection (1) are-

(a) That the business has not commenced business within 12 months after being registered;

(b) That the insurer has ceased to carry on insurance business in respect of any class of business;

(c) That it appears to the Authority that the insurer has failed to satisfy an obligation to which he is subject by virtue of this Act;

(d) That there exists a ground on which the Authority would be prohibited by section 10 from registering the insurer;

(e) That the insurer proposes to make, or has made any composition or arrangement with his creditors or has gone into liquidation or has been wound up or otherwise dissolved;

(f) That the insurer is carrying on his business in a manner likely to be detrimental to the interests of his policy owners;

(g) That the insurer is unable to meet his obligations;

(h) In the case of an insurer carrying on domestic insurance business other than captive insurance business or reinsurance business, the insurer has failed to effect satisfactory reinsurance arrangements;

(i) That the insurer has contravened any provisions of this Act or any regulations made thereunder or any condition imposed or any direction given by the Authority under this Act;

(j) That any of the officer of the insurer holding a managerial or executive position has been convicted of any offence under this Act;

(k) That the insurer has furnished false, misleading or inaccurate information, or has concealed or failed to disclosed material facts in his application for registration;

(l) That it is in the public interest to cancel the registration.

(3) The Authority shall before cancelling the registration of an insurer under this section, otherwise than at the request of the insurer, cause to be given to the insurer notice in writing of its intention to do so and calling upon the insurer to show cause to the Authority on or before a date specified in the notice, why the registration should not be cancelled, which shall be a date not less than 14 days from the date of despatch of the notice.

(4) Where the insurer fails to show cause on or before the date specified in the notice given under subsection (3) or fails to satisfy the Authority why the registration should not be cancelled, the Authority shall cancel the registration and shall forthwith inform the insurer of the cancellation.

(5) Any insurer aggrieved by a decision of the Authority under subsection (4) may appeal to the Supreme Court within a period of 14 days after the Authority has informed the insurer of the decision.

(6) An order of cancellation made by the Authority shall not take effect until the expiration of a period of 14 days after the Authority has informed the insurer of the cancellation or where an appeal has been lodged under subsection (5), during the pendency of the appeal.

(7) Notwithstanding the fact that the registration of an insurer has been cancelled under this section, so long as the insurer remains under any liability in respect of insurance policies belonging to the class of insurance business to which the registration relates, the insurer shall take such action as it considers necessary or as may be required by the Authority to ensure that reasonable provision has been or will be made for that liability and that adequate arrangements exit or will exist for payment of premiums and claims on those policies.

(8) Where the Authority has served a notice of cancellation under subsection (3), the Authority may give a direction to the registered insurer prohibiting the insurer from carrying on any insurance business under this Act, otherwise than by collection or receipt of premiums on insurance policies issued by the insurer, and the insurer shall comply with that direction.

(9) A Registered insurer who contravenes a direction under subsection (8), is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R50,000.

14.(1) Where an order of cancellation becomes effective under section 13-

(a) notice of the cancellation shall be published by the Authority in the Gazette; and

(b) The insurer shall, as from the date of cancellation, cease to carry under this Act insurance business of the class in respect of which its registration has been cancelled under this Act, otherwise than by the collection or receipt of premiums on insurance policies belonging to that class effected before the date of cancellation of registration and section 5 shall not apply to the insurer in respect of the collection or receipt of those premiums.

(2) Subsection (1)(b) shall not prejudice the enforcement by any policy owner or by any person of any right or claim against the insurer or by the insurer of any right or claim against any policy owner or that person.

15.(1) Every registered insurer shall establish and keep a register of policies Seychelles where it carries on business relating to Seychelles policies and a register of offshore policies where it carries on business relating to offshore policies.

(2) Subject to this section, there shall be entered in the register of Seychelles policies all Seychelles policies of the insurer and in the register of offshore policies all offshore policies of the insurer and no policy entered in any register shall be removed from it so long as the insurer is under any liability in respect of that policy.

(3) Subject to this section, there may be entered in the register of Seychelles policies such other policies as the insurer with the consent (express or implied) of the policy owners may determine, and this Act shall apply in relation to any policy so entered as if it were a Seychelles policy.

(4) Subject to subsection (5), a registered insurer carrying on life business outside Seychelles (and not doing so only by the collection or receipt of premiums) may, at the request of the policy owner of a policy belonging to the insurer's life business-

(a) refrain from entering the policy in the register of Seychelles policies, notwithstanding that it is a Seychelles policy; or

(b) remove the policy from the register of Seychelles policies, and this Act shall thereafter apply in relation to the policy as if it were not a Seychelles policy.

(5) Regulations may provide that subsection (3) or (4) shall apply only in such cases as may be prescribed or shall have effect subject to any prescribed exceptions or restrictions.

(6) A registered insurer shall, at the request of any person whom the registered insurer is satisfied has an interest in any policy of the insurer, inform him whether or not the policy is entered in any register of policies established by the insurer under this Act.

(7) Where a registered insurer has established under this Act any register of policies, the register shall cease to exist as a statutory register under this Act of policies belonging to either class of insurance business, if the insurer ceases to be registered under this Ac t in respect of that class of business; and any references in this Act to policies registered under this Act shall be construed accordingly.

(8) Subject to subsection (7), any register of policies established by a registered insurer shall, notwithstanding that the insurer at any time ceases to carry on under this Act either class of insurance business, continue to be maintained by the insurer for policies belonging to that class so long as the insurer is under any liability in respect of those policies registered or required to be registered at that time; but no policies belonging to either class of business shall be entered in the register under subsection (3) when the insurer is not carrying on that class of business under this Act or is doing so only by the collection or receipt of premiums.

(9) A register of policies established and kept by an insurer before the commencement of this Act shall be deemed to be a register of Seychelles policies under subsection (1).

16. (1) Every register insurer shall establish and maintain a separate insurance of fund -

(a) for each class of insurance business carried on by the insurer that relates to Seychelles policies; and

(b) for each class of insurance business carried on by the insurer that relates to offshore policies.

(2) The Authority may require any registered insurer to establish and maintain, in addition to the insurance funds under subsection (1), such other insurance fund as the Authority may determine for different types of policies of each class of business.

(3) There shall be paid into an insurance fund all receipts of the insurer properly attributable to the business to which the fund relates (including the income of the fund), and the assets comprised in the fund shall be applicable only to meet such part of the insurer's liabilities and expenses as is properly so attributable but shall not be applied to meet any levies payable by the insurer under section 45.

(4) In the case of an insurance fund established in respect of life business, no part of the fund shall be allocated by way of bonus to participating policies except with the approval of a qualified actuary and out of a surplus of assets over liabilities as shown on the last statutory valuation of the fund, and on the making of any such allocation that surplus shall be treated for purposes of this section as reduced by the amount allocated.

(5) If on the last statutory valuation in the case of an insurance fund established in respect of life business there was shown a surplus of assets over liabilities of the fund, there may, subject to the approval of a qualified actuary and to any provision to the contrary in any instrument or contract binding the insurer, be withdrawn from the fund an amount not exceeding the surplus and on the making of any such withdrawal that surplus shall be treated for the purposes of this section as reduced by the amount withdrawn.

Provided that no part of the surplus attributable to participating policies other than reinsurance policies shall be withdrawn in excess of one quarter of the amount allocated thereout by way of bonus to participating policies.

(6) If in the last statutory balance-sheet in the case of any insurance fund established in respect of general business there was shown a surplus of assets over liabilities of the fund, there may, subject to any provision to the contrary in any instrument or contract binding the insurer, be withdrawn from the fund an amount not exceeding the excess of the surplus over any fund margin of solvency prescribed for that fund under section 17, and on the making of any such withdrawal that surplus shall for the purposes of this section be treated as reduced by the amount withdrawn.

(7) In respect of any policy belonging to the insurer's life business which is under section 15(4) removed from the insurer's register of Seychelles policies there may be withdrawn from an insurance fund to which the policy relates an amount not exceeding the prescribed amount.

(8) Any amount withdrawn from an insurance fund under subsection (5), (6) or (7) and, in a winding up, any part of an insurance fund remaining after meeting the liabilities and expenses to which the fund is applicable may be dealt with as if it had not formed part of the fund except that in the case of winding up where any other insurance fund of the insurer under this Act is in deficit the surplus remaining after the winding up shall first be applied to make good the deficit in that fund.

(9) Any insurance fund established by an insurer for any class of business shall, notwithstanding that the insurer at any time ceases to carry on that class of business under this Act, continue to be maintained by the insurer so long as the insurer is required by this Act to maintain a register of policies for policies belonging to that class.

(10) Any insurer carrying on insurance business in Seychelles on or before the commencement of this Act who is required under subsection (1) to established an insurance fund for offshore policies shall do so at the time of establishment, and by reference to the policies registered or required to be registered unit as at its establishment, and by reference to the assets and liabilities of the insurer as at the time; and

(a) There shall be allocated to the fund assets of a value of not less (after allowing for any charges to which the fund is not applicable) than the aggregate of the amounts specified in the subsection (11); and

(b) All such matters as would subsequently have affected the fund if established at that time shall be brought into account accordingly.

(11) The amounts referred to in subsection (10)(a) are as follows-

(a) The amount, determined in the prescribed manner, of the liability of the insurer in respect of the policies referred to in subsection (10);

(b) The amount of any other liabilities of the insurer in so far as the assets allocated to the fund will be applicable or be treated as having been applicable to meet those liabilities; and

(c) The amount of the fund margin of solvency, if any, required to be maintained for the fund under section 17.

(12) The assets of any insurance fund established by an insurer under this Act shall be kept separate from all other assets of the insurer.17.(1) Every registered insurer shall maintain-

(a) A fund margin of solvency in respect of each of the insurance funds established by the insurer under this Act; and

(b) Margin of solvency,

of such amounts as may be prescribed or determined in accordance with regulations made under this Act for the purposes of this section.

(2) Regulations may prescribe-

(a) Different margins of solvency under subsection (1) for different classes of insurance business and for different types of insurers; and

(b) In respect of any type of insurers, any exception from the requirements of subsection (1).

(3) Without prejudice to the generality of section 61, regulations made under this Act may-

(a) Provide for the determination of the value of assets and the amount of liabilities in any case in which the value or amount is required by this section to be determined in accordance with valuation regulations;

(b) Provide that, for any specified purpose, assets or liabilities of any specified class or description shall be left out of account or shall be taken into account only to a specified extent; and

(c) Make different provision in relation to different cases or circumstances.

(4) For the purposes of this section-

(a) The fund margin of solvency in respect of any insurance fund is the excess of the value of the assets over the liabilities of that fund; and

(b) The margin of solvency of a registered insurer is the excess of the value of its assets over the amount of its liabilities,

that value and amount being determined in accordance with any applicable valuation regulations.

18. Regulations made under this Act may make provisions for securing that, investment in such circumstances and to such extent as may be prescribed, the assets of and situation any insurance fund of a registered insurer are invested in such manner and of assets maintained in such places as may be prescribed and the nature of the assets is appropriate in relation to the currency in which the liabilities of the insurer are or may be required to be met.

19.(1) Where a registered insurer has established an insurance fund under as to this Act, the insurer shall secure that any documents evidencing the insurer's documents title to assets of the fund, so long as the documents are held by or on behalf evidencing of the insurer, shall be kept in Seychelles or, if not so kept, shall be kept in title to assets the custody of a person approved by the Authority, and at a place and terms of insurance so approved. funds

(2) As insurer who has established an insurance fund under this Act shall from time to time notify the Authority in writing-

(a) the person having the custody of any such documents on behalf of the insurer, and the fact of any person ceasing to do so; and

(b) the reason why any such documents are not held by or on behalf of the insurer, and the identity of the documents in question.

(3) Any such document which is for the time being held by or on behalf of the insurer shall, on the Authority giving not less that 14 days' notice in writing to the insurer or to the person having the custody of the document, be produced for inspection to the Authority or a person nominated by it the person to whom the notice is given.

(4) A person who fails to comply with this section is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R15,000 and if the offence is continued after conviction to a fine of R3,000 for each day during which the offence so continued.

20.(1) Where the Authority is satisfied that there exists a ground on which of assets in the Authority would be empowered by section 13 to cancel the registration Seychelles of an insurer, the Authority may require that assets of the insurer of a value which at any time is equal to the whole or a specified proportion of the amount of its domestic liabilities shall be maintained in Seychelles.

(2) The Authority may direct that for the purposes of any requirement under this section assets of a specified class or description shall or shall not be treated as assets maintained in Seychelles.

(3) The Authority may direct that for the purposes of any requirement under this section the domestic liabilities of a registered insurer, or such liabilities of any class or description, shall be taken to be the net liabilities after deducting any part of them which is reinsured.

(4) A requirement imposed under this section may be framed so as to come into effect immediately after the day on which it is imposed or so as to come into effect after the expiration of a specified period or such longer period as the Authority may allow.

(5) In this section, any reference to a domestic liability is a reference to a liability of the insurance business carried on by the registered insurer in Seychelles.

(6) Subject to subsection (7), in computing the amount of any liabilities for the purposes of this section all contingent and prospective liabilities shall be taken into account but not liabilities in respect of share capital.

(7) For the purposes of this section the value of any assets and the amount of any liabilities shall be determined in accordance with any valuation regulations made under this Act.

21.(1) The Authority may, in the case of a registered insurer on which an assets requirement has been imposed under section 20 impose an additional requirement that the whole or a specified proportion of the assets to which the requirement under that section applies shall be held by a person approved by the Authority for the purposes of the requirement under this section as trustee for the insurer.

(2) Section 20(4) shall apply to a requirement under this section

(3) Assets of a registered insurer held by a person as trustee for the insurer shall be taken to be held by him in compliance with a requirement imposed under this section, if, and only if, they are assets in whose case the insurer has given him written notice that they are to be held by him in compliance with such a requirement or they are assets into which assets in whose case the insurer has given him such written notice have, by any transaction or series of transactions, been transposed by him on the instructions of the insurer.

(4) No assets held by a person as trustee for a registered insurer in compliance with a requirement imposed under this section shall, so long as the requirement is in force, be released except with the consent of the Authority.

(5) If a mortgage or charge is created by a registered insurer at a time when there is in force a requirement imposed on the insurer by virtue of this section, being a mortgage or charge conferring a security on any assets which are held by a person as trustee of the insurer in compliance with the requirement, the mortgage or charge shall, to the extent that it confers such a security, be void against the liquidator and any creditor of the insurer.

22. In the case of a life policy issued as a Seychelles policy after the Seychelles commencement of this Act, to a policy owner who is a citizen of Seychelles, currency of any policy moneys or moneys payable on the surrender of the policy shall, policy moneys notwithstanding anything in the policy or in any agreement relating thereto, under life be paid in the currency of Seychelles.

23.(1) A registered insurer shall not issue a life policy of any description being a Seychelles policy or an offshore policy, if the premium chargeable under life under the policy is not in accordance with rates fixed with the approval of policies a qualified actuary or, where no rates have been so fixed for policies of that description issued by the insurer, is not premium approved for the policy by a qualified actuary.

(2) An actuary shall not for the purposes of this section approve a premium for a policy or a rate of premium for any description of policy, unless he is satisfied that it is suitable and in accordance with sound insurance principles.

(3) An actuary in giving his approval in respect of any description of life policy shall have regard to the maximum rate of commission proposed to be paid or allowed to any person in respect of that description of policy, and shall certify the maximum rate.

(4) Where in the case of any registered insurer a rate of premium is approved by a qualified actuary for any description of life policy, the insurer shall not, except with the approval of the Authority, pay or allow in respect of any policy of that description a commission at a rate greater than the maximum rate of commission certified by the actuary.

(5) The Authority may by notice in writing require any registered insurer to obtain and furnish it within a time specified in the notice with a report by a qualified actuary as to the suitability of the rates of premium for the time being chargeable by the insurer for any description of life policy, and if the actuary considers that the rates are not suitable or not in accordance with sound insurance principles, a report as to the rates of premium which the actuary approves for that description of policy; and for the purposes of subsection (1) regard shall be had to any such report to the exclusion of any previous approval or report.

(6) An insurer who issues a policy or allows a commission in contravention of this section, is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R15,000.

24.(1) The Authority may by notice in writing require a registered insurer form of to submit to it the forms of proposals and policy for the time being in use by proposal, the insurer in or outside Seychelles, and any brochure which is for the time policies and being in use by the insurer for describing the terms or conditions of, or the brochure benefits to be or likely to be derived from, policies; and where the whole or part of any such form or brochure is not in English there shall be submitted with it a translation in English.

(2) A requirement under this section, unless it is otherwise provided therein, shall apply to all such forms and brochures coming into use after the making of the requirement and before the Authority notifies the insurer that the requirement is withdrawn.

(3) If it appears to the Authority, after affording the insurer an opportunity to make representations orally or in writing that any such form or brochure contravenes any provision of this Act, or is in any respect likely to mislead, it may by notice in writing direct the insurer to discontinue the use of the form or brochure in or outside Seychelles either forthwith or from a date specified in the notice.

(4) No registered insurer shall use in the course of carrying on insurance business under this Act a form of proposal which does not have prominently displayed therein a warning that if a proposer does not fully and faithfully give the facts as he knows them or ought to know them, he may receive nothing from the policy.

(5) Any insurer who uses a copy of a form or brochure in contravention of subsection (3) or (4), is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R15,000.

(6) In this section, "brochure" included any leaflet, circular or similar advertising matter, whether printed or not.

25.(1) In any case where, under the Companies Act it is unlawful to issue, as to circulate or distribute a prospectus relating to a company without a copy of prospectuses it being first delivered under that Act, it shall also be unlawful, in the case and statement of a company registered or intended to be registered as an insurer under this of Capital Act, to do so without the prospectus having been sanctioned by the Authority and any person knowingly responsible for the issue, circulation or distribution of a prospectus in contravention of this subsection is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding R30,000.

(2) In subsection (1) "prospectus" includes any notice, circular, advertisement or invitation inviting applications or offers from the public to subscribe for or purchase or offering to the public for subscription or purchase any shares in or debentures of or any units of shares in or units of debentures of a company, not being, an offer made or invitation issued to the public in respect of shares or debentures where the offer or invitation is exempt under the Companies Act.

(3) Where a notice, advertisement or other official publication of a company registered or intended to be registered as an insurer under this Act, contains a statement of the company's authorised share capital, and does not state therewith how much of that capital has been subscribed and how much is paid up, the company is guilty of offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R15,000.

26.(1) This section and sections 27 and 28 shall apply to and in relation to all natural persons whether resident in Seychelles or not and whether citizens of Seychelles or not, and to all bodies corporate or unincorporate, whether incorporated or carrying on business in Seychelles or not.

(2) No person shall, after the commencement of this Act, enter into an agreement to acquire shares of a registered insurer, being a company, by virtue of which he would, if the agreement is carried out, obtain effective control of that insurer without first notifying the Authority of his intention to enter into the agreement and obtaining the approval of the Authority to his entering into the agreement.

(3) For the purposes of this section-

(a) a person shall be regarded as entering into an agreement by virtue of which he would obtain effective control of a registered insurer if the person alone or acting together with any associate or associates would be in a position to control not less than 20% of the voting power of the insurer or would hold interests in not less than 20% of the issued shares of the insurer;

(b) a reference to an agreement by which a person would obtain effective control of a registered insurer, being a company, includes a reference to an agreement by which the person would acquire any interest in shares in the insurer where, upon the acquisition of those interests and of any other interests in other shares of the insurer that he has offered to acquire, he would have effective control of the insurer;

(c) a reference to a person offering to acquire interest in shares includes-

(i) a reference to a person making or publishing a statement, however expressed, that expressly or impliedly invites a holder of interests in shares to offer to dispose of interests in shares; and

(ii) a reference to a person taking part in or proposing to take part in negotiations with a view to the acquisition of shares

(d) a person holds an interest in a share if he has any legal or equitable interest in that share and without limiting the generality of the foregoing if he -

(i) has entered into a contract to purchase the share;

(ii) has a right , otherwise than by reason of having an interest under a trust, to have the share transferred to himself or to his order, whether the right is exercisable presently or in future and whether on the fulfilment of a condition or not;

(iii) has the right to acquire the share, or an interest in the share, under an option whether the right is exercisable presently or in the future and whether on the fulfilment of a condition or not;

(iv) is entitled (otherwise than by reason of his having been appointed a proxy or representative to vote at a meeting of members of a company or of a class of its members) to exercise or control the exercise of a right attached to a share, not being a share of which he is the registered holder;

and it is immaterial that the interest cannot be related to a particular share, but-

(v) a person shall not be deemed not to have an interest in shares by reason only that he has the interest in the share jointly with another person; and

(vi) there shall be disregarded-

A. an interest in a share if the interest is that of a person who holds the share as bare trustee;

B. an interest in a share of a person whose ordinary business includes the lending of money if he holds the interest only by way of security for the purposes of a transaction entered into in the ordinary course of business in connection with the lending of money;

C. an interest of a person in a share, being an interest held by him by reason of his holding a prescribed office; and

D. a prescribed interest in a share, being an interest of such person, or of the persons included in such class of persons, as is prescribed under the Companies Act;

except that an interest in a share shall not be disregarded by reason only of-

E. its remoteness;

F. the manner in which it arose; or

G. the fact that the exercise of a right conferred by the interest is, or is capable of being made, subject to restraint or restriction.

(e) a reference to the voting power in a registered insurer is a reference to the total number of votes that might be cast in the general meeting of the insurer; and

(f) the following person are associates of a person-

(i) the person's spouse or parent or remoter lineal ancestor, son, daughter or remoter issue, brother or sister of the person;

(ii) any partner of the person;

(iii) any corporation of which the person is an officer;

(iv) where the person is a corporation, any officer of the corporation;

(v) employee or employer of the person;

(vi) any officer of any corporation of which the person is an officer;

(vii) any employee of a natural person of whom the person is any employee;

(viii) any corporation whose directors are accustomed or under an obligation, whether formal or informal, to act in accordance with the directions, instructions or wishes of the person or, where the person is a corporation, of the directors of the person;

(ix) any corporation in accordance with the directions,instructions or wishes of which, or of the directors of which, the person is accustomed or under an obligation, whether formal or informal, to act;

(x) any corporation in which the person is in a position to control not less than 20% of the voting power in the voting power in the corporation; and

(xi) where the person is a corporation, a person who is in position to control not less than 20% of the voting power in the corporation.

(4) Any person who contravenes subsection (2) is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R150,000 and to imprisonment for a term of 3 years.

27.(1) No person shall, after the commencement of this Act, enter into any arrangement in relation to any registered insurer, being a company, by virtue control of which he would, if the arrangement is carried out, obtain control of the insurer without first notifying the Authority of his intention to enter into the arrangement and obtaining the approval of the Authority to his company entering into the arrangement.

(2) For the purposes of this section-

(a) a person shall be regarded as entering into an arrangement by virtue of which he would obtain control of a registered insurer if he alone or acting together with an associate or associates would be in a position to determine the policy of the insurer;

(b) the reference to entering into any arrangement is a reference to any formal or informal scheme, arrangement or understanding, whether expressly or by implication and without limiting the generality of the foregoing includes a reference, entering into a transaction or agreement, and references to an arrangement shall be construed accordingly; and

(c) the reference to associates of a person has the same reference, as under section 26.

(3) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R150,000 and to imprisonment for a term of 3 years.

(4) A person who monopolises, or attempts to monopolise or combines or conspires with any other person to monopolise any part of the insurance market is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R50,000 and to imprisonment for a term of one year.

28.(1) No person shall, after the commencement of this Act enter into substantial agreement to acquire shares by virtue of which he would, if the shareholdings agreement is carried out, acquire a substantial shareholding in a registered insurer, being a company, without first notifying the Authority of his intention to enter into the agreement and obtaining the approval of the Authority to his entering into the agreement.

(2) For the purposes of this section-

(a) a reference to an agreement by which a person would acquire a substantial shareholding in a registered insurer includes a reference to an agreement by virtue of which the person would acquire any interests in shares in the insurer where, upon the acquisition by him of those interests or of those interests and of any interests in other shares in the insurer, being interests that he has offered to acquire, he would acquire a substantial shareholding in the insurer.

(b) a reference to a person offering to acquire interests in shares and to a person having an interest in shares shall be construed in the same way as under section 26; and

(c) a substantial shareholding means-

(i) an interest or interests in one or more voting shares in a company and the nominal amount of which share, or the aggregate of the nominal amounts of which shares, is not less than 5% of the aggregate of the nominal amount of all the voting shares in the company; or

(ii) in the case of a company the share capital of which is divided into 2 or more classes of shares, an interest or interests in one or more voting shares included in one of those classes and the nominal amount of which share, or the aggregate of the nominal amount of which shares, is not less than 5% of the nominal amount of all the voting shares including in that class.

(3) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R30,000 and to imprisonment for a term of one year.

29.(1) The Authority may by notice in writing direct a registered insurer, being a company, to obtain from any shareholder of the insurer

and to

transmit to the Authority information-

as to whether that shareholder holds any voting shares in the insurer as beneficial owner or as trustee; and

(b) if he holds them as trustee, to indicate as far as he can the person for whom he holds them (either shares of the insurer the insurer by name or by other particulars sufficient to enable those persons to be identified) and the nature of their interests,

and the insurer shall comply with the direction within such time as is specified in the notice.

(2) For the purposes of this section, "voting shares" means an issued share of a company, not being -

(a) a share to which, in no circumstances, there is attached a right to vote;

(b) a share to which there is attached a right to vote only, in one or more of the following circumstances-

(i) during a period in which a dividend (or part of a dividend) in respect of share is in arrears;

(ii) upon a proposal to reduce the share capital of the company;

(iii) upon a proposal that affects rights attached to the share;

(iv) upon a proposal to wind up the company;

(v) upon a proposal for the disposal of the whole of the property, business and undertakings of the company;

(vi) during the winding up of the company.

30.(1) No registered insurer, being a company,-

(a) shall appoint a person as principal officer of the insurer in officers of Seychelles; or

(b) shall appoint a person as director of the insurer,

unless the insurer satisfies the Authority that that person is a fit and proper person to be so appointed and has obtained the approval of the Authority.

(2) Any person aggrieved by any decision of the Authority under subsection (1) may appeal to the Supreme Court within 14 days of the receipt of the decision of the Authority.

(3) In this section -

"director" has the same meaning as in the Companies Act;

"principal officer", in relation to a registered insurer, means any person by whatever name called employed by the insurer to be directly responsible for the conduct of any class of insurance business of the insurer in Seychelles.

31. The Authority may, by notice in writing, require any registered insurer to furnish it with information about any matter related to any business carried on by the insurer in Seychelles or elsewhere, if in the opinion of the Authority it requires that information for the discharge of its functions under this Act.

32.(1) No person shall without the approval of the Authority carry on insurance business in Seychelles as insurance agent for an insurer not entitled under this Act to carry on the business in question, and a person contravening this subsection is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R60,000 increased by a sum of R3,000 for every day on which he is proved to have done so, and to imprisonment for a term of 2 years.

(2) Subject to subsection is (3) and (4), no insurance broker shall, in the course of his business as such arrange any insurance business with an insurer (whether directly or through an insurance agent), except with a registered insurer acting in the course of his business as such, nor shall any person in Seychelles solicit insurance for an insurer not entitled under this Act to carry on that business and an insurance broker or person who contravenes this subsection is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R30,000 and to imprisonment for a term of one year.

(3) The reference in subsection (2) to insurance business shall not apply to reinsurance or business relating to risks outside Seychelles or such other risks as may be prescribed.

(4) Where in any particular case the Authority is satisfied that, by reason of the exceptional nature of the risk or other exceptional circumstances, it is not reasonably practicable to effect an insurance for that case with a registered insurer acting in the course of his business as such, the Authority may permit any insurance broker to negotiate the insurance with such insurer as the broker sees fit and also, if in the opinion of the Authority the case requires it, to effect the insurance and receive the premium in Seychelles on behalf of the insurer.

(5) The Authority may inspect books and records kept by any insurance agent and insurance broker and may for this purpose enter any premises at all reasonable times.

(6) Sections 24 and 31 shall apply in relation to insurance agents and to insurance brokers as they apply in relation to registered insurers.

33.(1) The Authority may by order prohibit any person from carrying prohibit on business as insurance agent or insurance broker in Seychelles or from taking part directly or indirectly in the management of any insurance agent or broker in Seychelles where the person has been convicted of an offence involving fraud, dishonesty, or moral turpitude.

(2) Any person aggrieved by any order of the Authority under subsection (1) may appeal to the Supreme Court within 14 days of the receipt of the order.

(3) Any person who fails to comply with an order of the Authority made under subsection (1) is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to be fine of R30,000 and to imprisonment for a term of one year and if the offence is continued after conviction to a further fine of R3,000 for each day during which the offence is so continued.

34.(1) No person shall, without the approval of the Authority, carry on business as an insurance agent for any registered insurer, or in the course of a business as an insurance broker arrange insurances with any registered insurer or in respect of any risk for which the broker has been permitted brokers under section 32(4) to arrange with any insurer; and for each calendar year in which a person acts as insurance agent or broker, he shall before the end of June in the following year lodge with the Authority a statement in the prescribed form, signed by him or on his behalf and giving the prescribed information as to his receipts and payments in connection with business done under that approval.

(2) Notwithstanding subsections (1) and (3), an insurance agent or insurance broker carrying on business as such agent or broker in Seychelles on the commencement of this Act may continue to carry on insurance business for a period of 6 months after such commencement.

(3) Where a person carries on insurance business without approval of the Authority under subsection (1) as an insurance agent or insurance broker or fails to lodge a statement as required by subsection (1), he is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of R30,000 and if the offence is continued after conviction to a further fine of R3,000 for each day during which the offence is socontinued.

(4) The Authority shall not be required to consider an application for approval under subsection (1) unless it is satisfied-

(a) that the person applying for approval to carry on business as insurance agent for any insurer has a surplus of assets over liabilities of not less than R300,000 or such greater amount as may be prescribed; and

(b) that the person applying for approval to carry on business as insurance broker in arranging insurances with any insurer has furnished a certified of solvency signed by the applicant's auditor and has a professional indemnity insurance policy of a value of not less than R1,500,000 or such greater amount as may be prescribed.

(5) In approving an application under subsection (1) the Authority may impose such conditions as it thinks fit and may at any time add to, vary or revoke such conditions.

(6) The Authority may cancel the approval of an insurance agent or broker issued under subsection (1) if it is satisfied that -

(a) the agent or broker has not commenced business within 12 months after being approved;

(b) the agent or broker has ceased to carry on the business for which it is approved;

(c) there exists a ground on which the Authority would not be required to consider an application for approval by the agent or broker under subsection (4);

(d) the agent or broker proposes to make, or has made, any composition or arrangement with his creditors or has gone into liquidation or has been wound up or otherwise dissolved;

(e) the agent or broker is carrying on his business in a manner likely to be detrimental to the interests of policy owners or the public;

(f) the agent or broker is unable to meet his obligations;

(g) the agent or broker has contravened any provision of this Act or any regulations made thereunder or any condition prescribed by the Authority;

(h) any of the officers of the agent or broker holding a managerial or executive position has been convicted of any offence under this Act; or

(i) the agent or broker has furnished false, misleading or inaccurate information, or has concealed or failed to disclose materials facts in his application for approval.

(7) Every insurance agent or broker approved under subsection (1) shall pay to the Authority such annual fees as may be prescribed.

(8) Regulations may prescribe different annual fees for insurance agents and brokers approved under subsection (1).

34A.(1) No person shall, without the approval of the Authority, carry on or business as an insurance manager or a principal insurance representative.

(2) An application for approval under subsection (1) shall be made to the Authority in writing.

(3) The Authority may require a person making an application under subsection (2) to furnish to the Authority such information as the Authority may request.

(4) The Authority shall not grant its approval to a person to carry on business as an insurance manager unless that person-

(a) is a person of good standing as approved by the Authority; or

(b) is, or has in the employment of the person a person who is, qualified by examination as a fellow or associate of the Chartered Insurance Institute of London or a member of either the Society of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters or the American Society of Chartered Life Underwriters both of the United States of America and who is either a current member of good standing of the applicable professional body or of some other professional insurance association recognised by the Authority for the purpose of this Act.

(5) Subject to subsection (4), the Authority may grant its approval under subsection (1) unconditionally or subject to such conditions as it may see fit to impose or may refuse its approval.

(6) Every insurance manager carrying on business as an insurance manager under this Act shall furnish to the Authority within 3 months after the end of each calendar year the following documents-

(a) a list of all registered insurers for whom the insurance manager has provided services;

(b) a report by an auditor that the statutory books and records of the insurer for whom the services have been provided have been kept properly and accurately in accordance with the applicable law;

(c) a certificate by the insurance manager that the insurer for whom the services have been provided has to the knowledge and belief of the insurance manager complied with the requirements of this Act and the terms and conditions of registration of the insurer under this Act;

(d) a certificate by the insurance manager that to the knowledge and belief of the insurance manager the insurer for whom the services have been provided continue to be of good reputation and probity.

(7) A person who contravenes subsection (1) or as an insurance manager fails to comply with subsection (6) is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine of R30,000 and if the offence is continued after conviction to a further fine of R3,000 for each day during which the offence is so continued.

35. Nothing in this Part shall operate to invalidate any policy.